Substances Act (CSA)
[Contraband (i.e., illegal to possess)
Substances and How “Classification” is Determined]
Controlled Substances Act (CSA), Title II of the Comprehensive Drug
Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, is the legal foundation
of the government's fight against the abuse of drugs and other substances.
This law is a consolidation of numerous laws regulating the manufacture
and distribution of narcotics, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens,
anabolic steroids, and chemicals used in the illicit production
of controlled substances.
CSA places all substances that are regulated under existing federal
law into one of five schedules. This placement is based upon
the substance's medicinal value, harmfulness, and potential for
abuse or addiction. Schedule I is reserved for the most dangerous
drugs that have no recognized medical use, while Schedule V
is the classification used for the least dangerous drugs. The act
also provides a mechanism for substances to be controlled, added
to a schedule, decontrolled, removed from control, rescheduled,
or transferred from one schedule to another. Punishment for violations
of the law are severe, especially for Schedule I and Schedule II
drugs, which are “100% contraband” (Schedule I) or “conditionally
contraband” absent approved DEA use by those holing a permit (Schedule
to add, delete, or change the schedule of a drug or other substance
may be initiated by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), or by petition from
any interested party, including the manufacturer of a drug, a medical
society or association, a pharmacy association, a public interest
group concerned with drug abuse, a state or local government agency,
or an individual citizen. When a petition is received by the DEA,
the agency begins its own investigation of the drug.
DEA also may begin an investigation of a drug at any time based
upon information received from law enforcement laboratories, state
and local law enforcement and regulatory agencies, or other sources
the DEA has collected the necessary data, the DEA Administrator,
by authority of the Attorney General, requests from the HHS a scientific
and medical evaluation and recommendation as to whether the drug
or other substance should be controlled or removed from control.
This request is sent to the Assistant Secretary of Health of the
HHS. Then, the HHS solicits information from the Commissioner of
the Food and Drug Administration and evaluations and recommendations
from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and on occasion, from
the scientific and medical community at large. The Assistant Secretary,
by authority of the Secretary, compiles the information and transmits
back to the DEA a medical and scientific evaluation regarding the
drug or other substance, a recommendation as to whether the drug
should be controlled, and in what schedule it should be placed.
medical and scientific evaluations are binding to the DEA with respect
to scientific and medical matters. The recommendation on scheduling
is binding only to the extent that if HHS recommends that the substance
not be controlled, the DEA may not control the substance.
the DEA has received the scientific and medical evaluation from
HHS, the Administrator will evaluate all available data and make
a final decision whether to propose that a drug or other substance
be controlled and into which schedule it should be placed.
CSA also creates a closed system of distribution for those authorized
to handle controlled substances. The cornerstone of this system
is the registration of all those authorized by the DEA to handle
controlled substances. All individuals and firms that are registered
are required to maintain complete and accurate inventories and records
of all transactions involving controlled substances, as well as
security for the storage of controlled
Contraband Drugs and
United States Law
I (MOST CONTROLLED OF ALL SUBSTANCES/DRUGS)
Heroin; Codeine methylbromide; “ crystal meth”; Peyote; Normethadone,
Acetyldihydrocodeine, Dihydromorphine, etc.
Schedule I shall consist of the drugs and other substances,
by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical
name, or brand name designated, listed in this section. Each
drug or substance has been assigned the DEA Controlled Substances
Code Number set forth opposite it.
federal penalty ranges, see:
definition of Schedule I drugs: (Georgia)
The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse;
The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical
use in treatment in the United States; and
There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or
other substance under medical supervision.
Controlled; DEA permit must be secured for anyone to possess